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The Influence of the French Court on the 1st Duke of Devonshire’s Chatsworth

L’influence de la cour de France sur le château de Chatsworth du 1er duc de Devonshire
Matthew Hirst

Résumés

Chatsworth, château baroque situé dans le comté de Derbyshire au nord de l'Angleterre, est aujourd’hui une demeure historique ouverte au public. Géré par une association caritative, le Chatsworth House Trust, il attire environ 720 000 visiteurs par an. Ce château appartient toujours au duc de Devonshire et fait, depuis 2007, l’objet d’un vaste projet de restauration d’un montant de 14 millions de livres sterling. Les travaux comprennent la conservation et le nettoyage de la maçonnerie, le remplacement de toutes les installations techniques indispensables, ainsi que la restauration et le réaménagement de nombreuses pièces. Les découvertes archéologiques qui sont faites régulièrement dans le cadre de ce projet sont précieuses pour la restauration du bâtiment actuel et la connaissance de la demeure élisabéthaine.

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Notes de la rédaction

This text is from the proceedings of the symposium “Marly: architecture, usages et diffusion d’un modèle français” (31 May, 1 and 2 June 2012, Château de Versailles) published on the Bulletin du Centre de recherche du château de Versailles.

Texte intégral

1

Mathew Hirst : The Influence of the French Court on the 1st Duke of Devonshire’s Chatsworth
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Enregistrement audio de la communication au colloque « Marly : architecture, usages et diffusion d’un modèle français », vendredi 1er juin 2012, Galerie basse du château de Versailles.

Communication en anglais.

Crédits : Mathew Hirst/2012/CRCV

2Chatsworth (fig. 1), a Baroque palace in the county of Derbyshire in northern England, is today a historic house open to the public. Operated by a registered charity, the Chatsworth House Trust, it attracts around 720,000 visitors a year. It is also still home to the Duke of Devonshire, and since 2007 has been undergoing a £14 million restoration project which includes the conservation and cleaning of the masonry, the replacement of all essential services as well as the restoration and representation of many important interiors in the house. As part of this project new archaeological evidence is constantly emerging, helping to reveal the development of the present building and the extent of the survival of its Elizabethan predecessor.

Fig. 1: William Cowen, View of Chatsworth and the Park from the West, 1828, watercolour on paper. Chatsworth archives, WP 1353.

Fig. 1: William Cowen, View of Chatsworth and the Park from the West, 1828, watercolour on paper. Chatsworth archives, WP 1353.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

  • 1 Barker 2003, p. 16.

3“We are all influenced by our surroundings. The landscapes, buildings, and objects around us form an environment that shapes those who live in it, as they shape it.”1 It is in the context of this statement that we can consider the 1st Duke of Devonshire’s new palace at Chatsworth, and the influence that his education, travels and exposure to the French court had on his architectural taste.

  • 2 Ibid., p. 48.

4William Cavendish, 4th Earl, and subsequently 1st Duke of Devonshire (fig. 2) inherited his title, the house and estate at Chatsworth together with the rest of the family’s estates in 1684 on the death of his father, the 3rd Earl of Devonshire (1617–1684). He was educated by Dr Henry Killigrew, playwright and Commoner at Christ Church Oxford, who took William on his Grand Tour. During the years of the Civil War in England, William lived in exile in France with his father who returned in 1645. The 3rd Earl was well acquainted with the French court, having spent eight months there with his tutor, the philosopher Thomas Hobbes in 1634/5. At this time he was introduced to many of the leading philosophers and mathematicians in Paris including Marin Mersenne and Pierre Gassendi.2

Fig. 2: Attributed to Adam Frans van der Meulen, Lord William Cavendish, later 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Devonshire (16401707) on Horseback, c. 1670, oil on canvas. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection, 678.

Fig. 2: Attributed to Adam Frans van der Meulen, Lord William Cavendish, later 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Devonshire (1640–1707) on Horseback, c. 1670, oil on canvas. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection, 678.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

5In 1661 Lord William Cavendish, the future 4th Earl, returned from exile with the restored English court, and was one of the train bearers at the coronation of Charles II. One year later he married Lady Mary Butler, daughter of the 1st Duke of Ormonde, the Anglo-Irish statesman who had become the Lord Steward of the Household and had also been in exile in France during the Commonwealth. In 1669, William Cavendish returned to Paris with his close friend Ralph Montagu who had been sent as ambassador to Louis XIV. Unfortunately Cavendish was involved in a skirmish at the Paris Opera following which he quickly returned to London. Succeeding to the title on the death of his father in 1684, he became a member of the court of James II. The following year an incident occurred in the King’s Presence Chamber when the Earl struck Colonel Thomas Colepeper and was fined £ 30,000. He retreated to Derbyshire and satisfied himself with rebuilding his house at Chatsworth, and never paid the fine.

Fig. 3: Needlework Picture of Chatsworth, 1590–1600, silk threads on linen. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection.

Fig. 3: Needlework Picture of Chatsworth, 1590–1600, silk threads on linen. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

6The house which the 4th Earl inherited in 1684 (fig. 3) had been constructed by his ancestor Elizabeth Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury (c. 1521-1608). Famously remembered as Bess of Hardwick, she was the most powerful woman in England after Queen Elizabeth I. She purchased the Chatsworth estate with her second husband Sir William Cavendish (1505–1557) in December 1549 for £600. Following Sir William’s death in 1557 she married twice more, finally to George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury. It was during this fourth marriage that the Earl was required by Elizabeth I to become keeper and custodian of Mary Queen of Scots.

  • 3 Devonshire 1999, p. 13.

7Bess of Hardwick’s house was subsequently modernized by the 3rd Earl of Devonshire from 1676 to 1680. He remodelled all the principal rooms, created a new great staircase and replaced the Elizabethan casement windows with substantially larger sash windows. The account books for the period 1675–1687 which survive in the Chatsworth archives record references for “digging places for fountains and trenches for pipes” as well as referring to a parterre.3 This is interesting as it confirms that as well as modernizing the house, the 3rd Earl was introducing changes to the garden in a more fashionable French style, which were a precursor to the work undertaken by his son. As a consequence of the alterations, and probably due to the introduction of larger windows, the structure was considered weak and decaying prompting the 4th Earl to begin his programme of rebuilding from 1687 onwards.

Fig. 4: Jan Kipp after Leonard Knyff, Chatsworth, Bird’s-Eye View, from Britannica Illustrata, 1707. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection, WP 1329.

Fig. 4: Jan Kipp after Leonard Knyff, Chatsworth, Bird’s-Eye View, from Britannica Illustrata, 1707. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection, WP 1329.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth

Settlement Trustees.

8As seen in this engraving showing Chatsworth as it existed in 1699 (fig. 4), the results of the 4th Earl’s improvements and rebuilding had already had a significant impact on Chatsworth, with its new classical south front. The 4th Earl chose a relatively unknown architect for his work, William Talman (who went on to become Surveyor of the King’s Works at Hampton Court Palace). Unusually for this time in England, Chatsworth was one of the first houses to be built by contract. The system faltered and eventually failed however, resulting in the dismissal of the contractors and a long drawn out lawsuit with claims on both sides.

Fig. 5: Francis Thompson, Schematic Ground Plan of Chatsworth Showing the Various Phases of Construction, from a drawing by W. F. Northend.

Fig. 5: Francis Thompson, Schematic Ground Plan of Chatsworth Showing the Various Phases of Construction, from a drawing by W. F. Northend.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth

Settlement Trustees.

  • 4 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 1.

9Originally the 4th Earl had only ever intended to rebuild the south front. Work began in January 1687, and by the autumn of that year the carpenters were already at work on the interior.4 Ultimately the 4th Earl continued to reconstruct the entire house, range by range around the original central courtyard. This process began in 1688 when work commenced on a new staircase tower in the south-east corner of the courtyard, replacing the one created by the 3rd Earl. By December of that year the south front was structurally complete and work had commenced on the demolition of the east side of the courtyard. The fact that he chose to rebuild the house in this way meant that certain compromises had to be made in the plan, using as it did the footprint of a by then outmoded style of building.

Fig. 6: Chatsworth, the south front.

Fig. 6: Chatsworth, the south front.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / Scene Photography. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

  • 5 Worlsey 1992.

10In terms of style he chose a giant order of Ionic pilasters to decorate the outer bays of a classical facade on a palatial scale. It is possible that the design was inspired by what he had seen at the court of Louis XIV when he travelled to France as a young man, and it relates closely to Bernini’s unexecuted design for the facade of the Louvre. It has also been suggested that the south front of Chatsworth relates to the design of the pavilions of Greenwich Palace.5

11The most striking features of the design of the south front are the deep parapets masking the roof – an unusual feature in England at the time – and the twelve-bay width of the facade, with the lack of a central emphasis. This may account for the enriched decoration on the pavilion bays on each side, designed to draw the eye away from the unadorned central six bays. These compromises in the classical design were the result of retaining the Elizabethan plan and placing the most important rooms (fig. 7–8) – the State Apartment – on the second floor not the piano nobile. A detail further witnessed by the greater height of the windows on the second floor, another perversion of classical design and proportion.

Fig. 7: Enfilade of State Rooms on the second floor of the south range of Chatsworth.

Fig. 7: Enfilade of State Rooms on the second floor of the south range of Chatsworth.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / David Vintiner. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

Fig. 8: The Chapel, Chatsworth.

Fig. 8: The Chapel, Chatsworth.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / David Vintiner. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

  • 6 Jackson-Stops 1994, p. 56.

12The interior of the new south range contained a series of State Apartments on the second floor, intended for the reception of the King and Queen. Many of the craftsmen and artists working for the Earl were also employed by the King at Hampton Court Palace to the outside London. Some were already celebrated, such as Jean Tijou, Antonio Verrio and Louis Laguerre, the latter’s painted ceilings with their architectural compartments compare to the work of Charles Le Brun at Versailles.6 Others were less well known, or complete newcomers, such as the Danish sculptor Caius Gabriel Cibber, or the local Derbyshire carver Samuel Watson who arrived at Chatsworth at the age of twenty-six.

  • 7 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 1: 1685–99, fol. 8.
  • 8 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Historic Landscape Survey – The Park and Gardens: A Notebo (...)
  • 9 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 3: 1695–96, fol. 56.
  • 10 Jackson-Stops 1994, p. 56.

13There were Flemish craftsmen such as the carver Lanscroon or the cabinetmaker Gerrit Jensen who also supplied much of the glass. Many more of them hailed from France. Most importantly perhaps for the present subject is Monsieur Nicholas Huet, which was sometimes anglicized in the Accounts to “Mr. Hewitt, the French Minister” who acted as the chief supervisor of the works on the house and garden from 1687–1707.7 Working under him was the designer of all the waterworks in the garden, Monsieur Grillet, reputedly a pupil of the celebrated Le Nôtre.8 Later, another Frenchman Monsieur Pierre Audais, referred to in the accounts as “the French Gardener” was employed.9 There were even trompe l’œil perspectives painted on walls in the garden by various artists including Pierre Berchet, who had been the pupil of Lafosse who worked at Marly in 1698.10 It seems reasonable to conclude therefore that the 4th Earl, in addition to his own first-hand experience at the French court, surrounded himself with artists and craftsmen of the first calibre who would have been well versed in current fashion and adept at exchanging ideas.

Fig. 9: The Cascade and Cascade House, Chatsworth.

Fig. 9: The Cascade and Cascade House, Chatsworth.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / Gary Rogers. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

14In 1694 the 4th Earl was created 1st Duke of Devonshire by William III, no doubt in recognition for the role he had played in bringing William of Orange to the English throne in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The original cascade at Chatsworth was created by Monsieur Grillet in the same year as the dukedom. It is referred to in the Building Accounts a number of times before its completion two years later when it was seen by Celia Fiennes in 1696 when she visited. She recorded her observations in her diary:

… there is a large park and several fine gardens one without the another, with gravel walks and squares of grass stone statues in them … and in the middle of each garden is a large fountain full of images of sea gods and Dolphins and sea horses which are full of pipes which spout water in the basin and spouts all about the garden … so the garden lies one above another which makes the prospect very fine.

Above the gardens is an ascent of 5 or 6 steps one above another. There is a green walk. On each end of one walk stands two pyramids full of pipes spouting water that runs down one of them.

  • 11 Fiennes 1988, p. 106.

There is a basin in which are the branches of two artichokes leaves which weep at the end of each leaf into a basin which is placed at the foot of lead steps 30 in number. The lowest step is very deep, and between every 4 steps is a half pace. On a little bank stands blew balls 10 on a side, and between each ball are 4 pipes which spouts out water across the steps to each other like an arch.11

15Five years later Grillet’s cascade was taken up, and extended with a long steep flight with an elaborate cascade house at the top designed by the newly arrived architect Thomas Archer. It has been suggested that this new, larger cascade was built in response to the large cascade constructed at Marly for Louis XIV in 1697–98.

Fig. 10: Chatsworth, the West Front, drawing of the elevation by John Fitch. Chatsworth Archives.

Fig. 10: Chatsworth, the West Front, drawing of the elevation by John Fitch. Chatsworth Archives.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

  • 12 Devonshire Mss. 1st Series, 70–17.

16At the same time as the cascade was being rebuilt, the 1st Duke was also at work on the reconstruction of the west front. William Talman, the architect of the south and east fronts, had been dismissed in 1696, and the architect of the west front is unknown. In the Chatsworth archives there is a drawing by the Duke’s builder John Fitch, approved by the Duke and signed in his hand in the top right hand section of the frieze: “I approve of this design wth snakes over ye pilasters.” The drawing relates to the agreement signed by Fitch on 13 July 1700 (fig. 10).12

  • 13 Lees-Milne 1968.
  • 14 Barker 2003, p. 119.

17James Lees-Milne suggests that the west front “is an obvious yet extremely clever adaptation of the two-storeyed royal pavilion at Marly”.13 The appearance of the west front certainly bears comparison to the design of Marly, with the addition of the rusticated basement storey. The 1st Duke could not have seen Marly first hand as he was not in France after 1669 and work on Marly did not begin until ten years later. He surely would have known of it through engravings however, as the chateau was depicted by the engraver Adam Perelle (1638–1695) in Veues des plus Beaux Lieux de France et d’Italie published in Paris circa 1690 by Nicolas Langlois. Whilst it is not possible to establish if the 1st Duke owned this publication, evidence for the use of designs available through engraved sources in the execution of Chatsworth exists in the Devonshire Collection. A suite of engravings for ornament by the French painter George Charmeton Plusieurs sortes Dornemens & masque, 1676 with François Chauveau, Divers Masques were used by Samuel Watson the principal carver at Chatsworth when making the masks that decorate the terrace wall of the west front.14 Exactly how the 1st Duke arrived at a design so closely derived from Marly will probably remain unanswered, but the fact that the design evolved significantly can be ably demonstrated by other extant evidence.

Fig. 11: Louis Chéron, Alternative Design for the West Front of Chatsworth (a decorative panel painting originally hung in the 1st Duke’s Long Gallery). Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection.

Fig. 11: Louis Chéron, Alternative Design for the West Front of Chatsworth (a decorative panel painting originally hung in the 1st Duke’s Long Gallery). Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

18An earlier panel painting that was used to decorate the walls of the Long Gallery and Small Dining Room on the east range of the 1st Duke’s house survives on the ceiling of the nineteenth century theatre (fig. 11). It is suggested here that this panel represents an earlier scheme to reface the existing Elizabethan front, before a decision was taken to rebuild it entirely. Comparison between the fenestration of the Elizabethan front and its disposition and proportions in the painted view seem convincing, and the paired pilasters surmounted by sculpture in niches would seem to correspond to the position of the former staircase towers of the Elizabethan house.

Fig. 12: Samuel Watson, Drawing for the West Front of Chatsworth. Chatsworth Archives.

Fig. 12: Samuel Watson, Drawing for the West Front of Chatsworth. Chatsworth Archives.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

19A third representation also survives in the Chatsworth archives among the papers of the decorative carver Samuel Watson (fig. 12). Stylistically it represents a transition between the Chéron panel and the Fitch drawing of the building as executed. It shows the west front as being eleven bays in width, with a central temple front, with the articulation of Corinthian pilasters and columns in a giant order like those on the south front. The Chéron panel likewise depicts Corinthian columns and pilasters, although not of a giant order and is also eleven bays wide on the ground floor in contrast to the nine bay width of the Fitch drawing. Unfortunately the drawing is not dated and the precise reason for its existence is unknown, but it seems reasonable to conclude that it shows a mid point in the design process.

Fig. 13: John Barker’s Survey of Chatsworth, 1700, from a copy of the original made by Jeffry Wyatville.

Fig. 13: John Barker’s Survey of Chatsworth, 1700, from a copy of the original made by Jeffry Wyatville.

© Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.

  • 15 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 6, fol. 26.
  • 16 I am grateful to Kevin Rodgers of Inskip & Jenkins, architects for the current restoration of Chats (...)

20The final piece of evidence for consideration here is John Barker’s survey of Chatsworth (fig. 13), dated 1700. Reference to the payment for it appears in the Building Accounts.15 The plan of the house indicates the disposition of rooms in the interior of the east, south and west ranges. The north range is not articulated, and this may be as a consequence of its impending reconstruction as the last phase of rebuilding the Elizabethan house. What is interesting to note is the clear difference in the length of the west front compared with that of the east.16 Whilst this may be attributable to the original Elizabethan plan, the absence of a room on the plan at the northern end of the west front may relate to the change in design of the west facade as existing, and potentially therefore a compromise in order to accommodate the extant design, inspired by the Château de Marly.

21

It seems reasonable to conclude from the visual evidence of the west front, and the evolution of its design based on the representations discussed above, that the 1st Duke of Devonshire was consciously evoking the Château de Marly in the principal facade of his new house. He clearly considered other alternatives, which may have allowed the Elizabethan structure to be more wholly preserved behind a new fascia. He was doubtless aided in his task by the French craftsmen, builders and engineers involved in the construction of the house, cascades and other fountains. The transfer of ideas through the experience of the individuals involved must have played a part, and the known use of some published sources, together with the Duke’s own first-hand experience when in exile and later travel to France, demonstrate that he was looking to Louis XIV, and in particular the Château de Marly for inspiration.

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Bibliographie

Barker Nicolas, 2003, The Devonshire Inheritance: Five Centuries of Collecting at Chatsworth, Alexandria, Art Services International.

Devonshire Deborah Vivien Freeman-Mitford Cavendish duchess of, 1999, The Garden at Chatsworth: the Duchess of Devonshire, London, Frances Lincoln.

Fiennes Cecilia, 1988, The illustrated Journeys of Celia Fiennes, 1682–1712, ed. by C. Morris, Exeter and London, Webb & Bower in association with Michael Joseph.

Jackson-Stops Gervase, 1994, “Duke of Creation”, Country Life, 7 April, p. 56.

Lees-Milne James, 1968, “Chatsworth, Derbyshire IV. A Seat of the Duke of Devonshire”, Country Life, 2nd May, vol. 164.

Worlsey Giles, 1992, “William Talman: Some Stylistic Suggestions”, The Georgian Group Journal, vol. 2, p. 6–18.

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Notes

1 Barker 2003, p. 16.

2 Ibid., p. 48.

3 Devonshire 1999, p. 13.

4 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 1.

5 Worlsey 1992.

6 Jackson-Stops 1994, p. 56.

7 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 1: 1685–99, fol. 8.

8 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Historic Landscape Survey – The Park and Gardens: A Notebook, 2 “The Cascade, Cascade House, Statues and Pond.”

9 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 3: 1695–96, fol. 56.

10 Jackson-Stops 1994, p. 56.

11 Fiennes 1988, p. 106.

12 Devonshire Mss. 1st Series, 70–17.

13 Lees-Milne 1968.

14 Barker 2003, p. 119.

15 Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, Chatsworth Building Accounts, vol. 6, fol. 26.

16 I am grateful to Kevin Rodgers of Inskip & Jenkins, architects for the current restoration of Chatsworth, for pointing this out to me and for discussing the whole subject at length following his in depth study of the archival material relating to the 1st Duke’s Chatsworth.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1: William Cowen, View of Chatsworth and the Park from the West, 1828, watercolour on paper. Chatsworth archives, WP 1353.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 808k
Titre Fig. 2: Attributed to Adam Frans van der Meulen, Lord William Cavendish, later 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Devonshire (16401707) on Horseback, c. 1670, oil on canvas. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection, 678.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 628k
Titre Fig. 3: Needlework Picture of Chatsworth, 1590–1600, silk threads on linen. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,4M
Titre Fig. 4: Jan Kipp after Leonard Knyff, Chatsworth, Bird’s-Eye View, from Britannica Illustrata, 1707. Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection, WP 1329.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 7,1M
Titre Fig. 5: Francis Thompson, Schematic Ground Plan of Chatsworth Showing the Various Phases of Construction, from a drawing by W. F. Northend.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 8,4M
Titre Fig. 6: Chatsworth, the south front.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / Scene Photography. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 3,2M
Titre Fig. 7: Enfilade of State Rooms on the second floor of the south range of Chatsworth.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / David Vintiner. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,1M
Titre Fig. 8: The Chapel, Chatsworth.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / David Vintiner. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,0M
Titre Fig. 9: The Cascade and Cascade House, Chatsworth.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth / Gary Rogers. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 7,3M
Titre Fig. 10: Chatsworth, the West Front, drawing of the elevation by John Fitch. Chatsworth Archives.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 7,5M
Titre Fig. 11: Louis Chéron, Alternative Design for the West Front of Chatsworth (a decorative panel painting originally hung in the 1st Duke’s Long Gallery). Chatsworth, The Devonshire Collection.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,8M
Titre Fig. 12: Samuel Watson, Drawing for the West Front of Chatsworth. Chatsworth Archives.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,0M
Titre Fig. 13: John Barker’s Survey of Chatsworth, 1700, from a copy of the original made by Jeffry Wyatville.
Crédits © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth. Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees.
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/11943/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 2,8M
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Matthew Hirst, « The Influence of the French Court on the 1st Duke of Devonshire’s Chatsworth », Bulletin du Centre de recherche du château de Versailles [En ligne],  | 2012, mis en ligne le 20 décembre 2013, consulté le 23 octobre 2017. URL : http://crcv.revues.org/11943 ; DOI : 10.4000/crcv.11943

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Auteur

Matthew Hirst

Head of Arts & Historic Collections, The Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth

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