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Some examples of external colouration on English brick buildings, c. 1500–1650

Étude de façades peintes de palais anglais, entre 1500 et 1650
Jonathan Foyle

Résumés

Des études récentes réalisées sur les palais de Hampton Court et Kew Palace ont révélé l’histoire de la couleur des façades. Deux approches successives ont pu être définies. Au xvie siècle, on choisit de simuler une façade de brique par l’emploi de peintures rouge, blanche et noire. Cet usage met en avant la brique dans toute sa dimension décorative. Au xviie siècle, on s’intéresse plutôt à l’usage d’un enduit ocre rouge uniforme appelé « ruddle ». Cette pratique efface la présence de la brique et accentue l’impression d’homogénéité et de « monolithisme » des bâtiments. Cette intervention examine les origines possibles de ces traditions et expose les conséquences du rétablissement de la technique du « ruddling » à Kew Palace.

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1Today, the original applied colourations of historic buildings in England have usually weathered away to expose the innate colour of the wall materials. We have largely revived the Protestant taste for plain materials and light interior surfaces that obscured the polychromy of our Catholic past almost 500 years ago. The story is different for exteriors, because after the mid-twentieth century Modernist experiments in white render developed grey stains, green mould or warm streaks of rust, we have generally come to suppose that exterior white limewash is suited to warmer, drier climates. Therefore, we have all but stopped using limewash as an habitual traditional material other than for conservation projects, most commonly its reinstatement on timber vernacular buildings in eastern England and rubble‑built houses in south‑western England.

  • 1 For example, articles by Dr David Park and scholars of his department of paint conservation at the (...)
  • 2 The most conspicuous Scottish example of restored colour is the Great Hall of Stirling Castle (c. 1 (...)

2We rarely experience the effect of coloured limewashes on major buildings. The tradition died out before the age of colour photography could record it convincingly: as the saying has it, out of sight is out of mind. Yet there exists copious documentation for coloured limewashes, and small traces are to be seen everywhere that frequently surprise us and challenge our preconceptions when we imagine their original extent. A recent interest in the history of architectural colour has emerged in tandem with the scientific study of paint strata, pigments and binding agents1. This has created a large corpus of report-based documentation of historic schemes, intended for conservation projects. Many of these are studies of medieval church architecture, which provide fragments of polychromy beneath postmedieval whitewash. Some analyses inform reinstatement projects, but church buildings are seldom repainted. Most of the limewash reinstatements of the period under examination have taken place on houses (whitewash and red ochre for timber houses in East Anglia) and castles (especially in Scotland, using whitewash or yellow ochre)2. Colour is less commonly reapplied to the brick buildings typical of south‑east England.

  • 3 Nathaniel Lloyd’s landmark 1925 book A History of English Brickwork does not mention limewash on br (...)

3Large houses represent the most substantial group of buildings in sixteenth‑century and early seventeenth‑century England: following the radical reforms of the English church in the 1530s, few ecclesiastical buildings were developed, let alone commissioned, whilst the prevalent culture of magnificence augmented the desire to create strong political impressions with house designs that were frequently anticipated to accommodate an itinerant monarchy. Brick was a fashionable material in southeast England, where clay geology made importing masonry expensive, and many courtiers and merchants centered on London had the wealth to invest in laborious decorative schemes. But these have largely been forgotten3, and as a result research is required to examine how and why colour was used to provide an appropriate public face to palaces and large houses, and whether there was a language of colour that determined their choice and the use of different techniques.

  • 4 Winchester’s Anglo-Saxon New Minster has yielded figurative painting prior to 903, which appears to (...)
  • 5 One example amongst many is the chapter house of St Frideswide’s priory (now Oxford Cathedral) of c (...)

4Medieval origins must offer part of the answer. Medieval depictions of buildings in England, France and Italy usually show plain exteriors rendered in white, yellow ochre, red ochre and grey‑blue. These may be pictorial conventions, or they may represent colourwashes that created a comparable homogeneity of effect. Documented examples, such as the eponymous ‘White Tower’ of London as painted by Henry III in c. 1240, would appear to stem from a much older tradition of quite plainly coloured façades4. The carefully ashlar‑faced interiors of medieval buildings were limewashed, most basically in white, but often with extra decorative patterns and colours. Interior walls were usually lined with a grid of false red masonry joints — sometimes represented by one thick line, sometimes by double outlines — to present the illusion of individual blocks that bore no relationship to the genuine masonry that all this paintwork concealed5. Additional stylised designs were often painted within the individual ‘blocks’, either stencilled or freehand versions of flowers in full bloom. So, for masonry buildings, the medieval custom in England was to mask the load bearing materials with decoration — colourful inside, plain outside.

Fifteenth-century brick buildings

  • 6 It has been a matter of debate whether this glaze was an accidental product of kiln firing or delib (...)

5The arrival of monumental brick buildings in England is datable to the second quarter of the fifteenth century. Before this period, bricks were not laid regularly, nor even made to a consistent size. Irregular bonds were rendered more erratic by the random displacement of bricks featuring a potash glaze, coloured light grey/green.6 This phenomenon is important, for glazed bricks were set to become a standard decorative feature of English buildings.

6A group of mid fifteenth-century buildings supervised by William Waynflete (1447–86), Bishop of Winchester illustrate the range of responses to brick building in its formative decades.

Eton College in Berkshire

7In 1446, at King Henry VI’s Eton College in Berkshire, thirty miles west of London, Waynflete oversaw its uniform bricks laid in a regular bond to create a regular, tessellated surface. This offered distinct new possibilities of surface decoration that were integral to the structure of the building, including the use of differentiated glazed and unglazed bricks that could create a regular pattern. Due to the overlapping essential to any strong masonry bond, such a pattern must be diagonal. The generic name given to diagonal masonry bonds is ‘diaper work’.

Wainfleet School in Lincolnshire

8On occasion, specially glazed bricks were experimented with. A clear example of a deliberate attempt to glaze individual bricks before setting them into the wall can be found at Wainfleet School in Lincolnshire (fig. 1), built c. 1470 by William Waynflete in his home village, as a preparatory school for his most famous foundation, Magdalen College, Oxford.

Fig. 1: Wainfleet, Lincolnshire. St. Mary’s school. Patron: William Waynflete, c. 1470. View from north-west.

Fig. 1: Wainfleet, Lincolnshire. St. Mary’s school. Patron: William Waynflete, c. 1470. View from north-west.

© Jonathan Foyle

9The diaper work on the north side of the school building is a deep green colour, probably tinted by copper, and the lustre of the glaze suggests a lead content. The effect achieved was of open diapers of green against a field of red-brown, two colours of great contrast (fig. 2). But this technique was not applied to the whole façade, and it is difficult to decipher any meaning or wider purpose from it. The rarity of lead-glazed bricks elsewhere suggests that Wainfleet School was an inconsequential experiment.

Fig. 2: Wainfleet, Lincolnshire. St. Mary’s school. Patron: William Waynflete, c. 1470. Detail of glazed diaper work on north wall.

Fig. 2: Wainfleet, Lincolnshire. St. Mary’s school. Patron: William Waynflete, c. 1470. Detail of glazed diaper work on north wall.

© Jonathan Foyle

Farnham Castle in Surrey

10A contemporary example of 1475-80, also built for Waynflete, is the gatehouse entrance (fig. 3) to Farnham Castle in Surrey, an episcopal palace. This fortified building shows a quite different technique of brick decoration. The entrance tower is the first known English building to feature consistent, integrally bonded diaper work in potash-glazed bricks. And yet, the logic and clarity of this scheme is confused by an account for 200 pounds of red-ochre pigment, which as a tinting medium can only have been used for a decorative application of red limewash, or ‘ruddle’ in a sufficient quantity to coat the entire structure. This scenario presents a question: were the bricks — so carefully set in a regular diaper pattern — obscured by this ruddle, or did their potash glaze act as a repellent, like wax beneath watercolour paint, so that the glazed bricks would show through the red wash? Practical experimentation to ascertain this would be a most welcome research exercise.

Fig. 3: Gatehouse, Farnham Castle, Surrey.

Fig. 3: Gatehouse, Farnham Castle, Surrey.

© English Heritage

Sixteenth-century brick buildings

Hampton Court Palace in Surrey

11The major example of early sixteenth-century surface finishes can be found at Hampton Court Palace in Surrey, thirteen miles south-west of London. It was built from c. 1515-21 for Thomas Wolsey as a model palace for a cardinal designate. The palace was situated on the north bank of the River Thames, between the royal London palaces of Eltham and Greenwich, nearby Richmond, and Windsor to the west. It was taken from Wolsey by Henry VIII in 1528, and so it changed from cardinalate to royal occupancy. The king’s piecemeal remodelling from 1528-47 is documented to have received surface finishes including pencilling, for which loads of burned hay were supplied, no doubt in order to mix the soot with lime slurry to create dark grey.

12Hampton Court is highly important in adumbrating the suitability of treatments to a single building of varying levels of status. The simplest description of the layout of the palace is this: a guest lodging court lay to the west; the central court was bounded by the great hall (north side) and the state apartments (east side). To the north of the great hall, and out of sight of the principal inhabitants, were the kitchens and servery. The chapel and long gallery were parallel stretching to the east: the long gallery has long been lost, but the chapel remains, through much remodelling. In two different locations, the revelation of original wall surfaces has demonstrated two distinct approaches: painted diaper work in three colours on the chapel (1515-c. 1521) (fig. 4), and bare brick and mortar with no painting on the original kitchen servery passage (1515-c. 1534).

Fig. 4: Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. Detail of pencilling scheme on east wall of the chapel, built for Cardinal Thomas Wosley and completed c. 1521.

Fig. 4: Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. Detail of pencilling scheme on east wall of the chapel, built for Cardinal Thomas Wosley and completed c. 1521.

The unexplained arch to the bottom right was infilled in the early 1530s, and the wall covered with plaster until 1982.

© Jonathan Foyle

13The painted diaper work was found on the originally external east wall of the chapel in 1982 when plaster was removed from an abutting structure. The wall features a broad central arch formed of brick voussoirs (fig. 4). The mortar is typically ‘double-struck’, that is, formed by two parallel trowel strikes to form a convex ‘V’ shape. It is not known whether, upon completion in c. 1521 this arch spanned a door, window or tabernacle, but the space was filled in with rough brickwork before 1535. The wall and arch voussoirs bear an almost complete paint scheme in excellent condition. This scheme is the first and only decoration to have been painted here before it was plastered over. Upon close inspection, it can be seen that there are three stages of application: first comes the red ruddle over the entire façade; then a precise diaper pattern in slaked lime mixed with dark grey soot (which contemporary documents tell us was obtained from burning loads of hay); thirdly, once the diaper was completed, the mortar courses were overpainted with bright white lime. The contemporary term for it was ‘pencilling’, derived from the Latin ‘penicillus’ for ‘brush’, this object being called ‘pinsel’ in England by 1325, and usually ‘pincel’ or ‘peincel’ in Old French. This faux effect was significantly neater than the brick masons setting diaper brick patterns usually managed. A good example of this can be seen in the voussoirs of the arch: where a brick of irregular size appears, it is overpainted to present the illusion of regularity. This was clearly a highly prominent façade, and the arcuated feature was no doubt a principal focus of the exterior. So the paintwork reinforces this importance by presenting a precise pattern of brilliant colour. The effect was to render each brick a unit within a tessellated surface. This might be seen as a more literal development of the medieval technique of depicting masonry lines.

14The other well-preserved original surface is to be found on the west wall of the servery passage. It was remodelled in 1534, leaving only half its original length at the northern, kitchen end. Here, another episode of plaster removal revealed a fresh façade with absolutely no surface treatment over the natural colours of the bricks and mortar.

15Henry VIII assumed tenancy of Hampton Court from 1528, and the royal works’ accounts relate to further examples of pencilling, most notably on the great hall. This suggests that all the principal elevations were treated the same way, a staggering feat of labour and frightening burden of maintenance.

Chenies Manor in Buckinghamshire

16Comparative studies show Hampton Court was not extraordinary for its surface finishes. One underrated example of the early Tudor great house turned palace is Chenies Manor in Buckinghamshire. Chenies Manor was almost totally rebuilt for Sir John Russell from 1538 into a house that could suitably accommodate Henry VIII and his retinue. An L-shaped remnant of its lodgings and solar remains, which betrays a complete scheme of pencilling. This underscores the Tudor principle of creating an impression of richness equated with magnificence.

17So, pencilling can be found on several of the great buildings of early Tudor England. Where did the technique come from? I have already suggested that the ruled, red masonry joints of medieval practice may have set a precedent, but this cannot have been a simple transition because painted bricks seem to arise after standard bonding patterns were adopted in the 1440s; and the former technique is usually internal, the latter external. Could there be a missing link between the two techniques?

18I offer this suggestion as a possibility: that diaper-patterned brickwork and pencilling were practices learned from Venice, a vibrant cosmopolitan city, which had established strong trading links with London in the early fifteenth century. Venice apparently began its tradition of diaper‑patterned façades in the mid-fourteenth century with the construction of the Doge’s Palace (Palazzo Ducale) in white Istrian limestone and pink Verona marble. External diaper patterns had enjoyed a long tradition in the Levant, but with an important distinction: the buildings of the Middle East used green and blue glazed bricks. A fifteenth‑century Venetian example of brick masonry with thick black glazing survives at the Church of San Zaccaria (fig. 5).

Fig. 5: San Zaccaria, Venice (Italy). Brick wall of glazed diaper work to the south of the church’s west façade.

Fig. 5: San Zaccaria, Venice (Italy). Brick wall of glazed diaper work to the south of the church’s west façade.

© Jonathan Foyle

19A second practice came to the fore here, possibly as early as the fourteenth century: painted brickwork in red and white limewash. This was usually an internal decoration. A good example is the Basilica dei Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the favourite burial church of the Doges (fig. 6). The apses and transept were complete by 1368; the church was consecrated in 1430. In contrast to the exterior, which is modelled with fine cut brickwork, the interior is completely painted with ruddle and white lines delineating bricks in a very similar manner to that encountered in England by c. 1500, where it is used externally, however. The presence of the technique on every wall of Santi Giovanni e Paolo suggests a long tradition of repair, with the potential for this to be the decoration present in 1430.

  • 7 See Paul Hills, Venetian Colour, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999, p. 82‑83.

20Santi Giovanni e Paolo is not the only Venetian church to bear faux brickwork: Santo Stefano is another important example. Completed in the second half of the fourteenth century, its nave walls present a very attractive variant scheme, which may lag a little in date: its acanthine crockets allied to Lombardic script suggest the mid-fifteenth century. This example is particularly interesting because it is stridently diagonal, representing diaper work, and it portrays headers in a dark grey colour, which completes the triple palette of the English examples7.

Fig. 6: Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice (Italy). Detail of painted brick masonry in red ochre and white lime.

Fig. 6: Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice (Italy). Detail of painted brick masonry in red ochre and white lime.

© Jonathan Foyle

  • 8 Deborah Howard, Venice & the East: The Impact of the Islamic World on Venetian Architecture, 1100–1 (...)
  • 9 Oleg Grabar’s review of Deborah Howard’s book Venice & the East in The Art Bulletin, March 2003, su (...)
  • 10 See George B. Parks, The English Traveler to Italy, vol. 1: The Middle Ages (to 1525), Rome, Edizio (...)

21The many specific oriental derivations in Venetian architecture have recently been discussed by authors such as Deborah Howard8. This study elucidates a ‘pick & mix’ attitude to architectural influence in the city, from the details of ornament to abstractions of spatial arrangements9. That the English may have been similarly influenced by the architecture of the Mediterranean has long been accepted. In the early twelfth century zig‑zag ornamentation was adopted, arguably from the experience of crusaders witnessing Moorish or Islamic buildings, and at the same time that Persian saffron and using fruit with meat infused English cooking. A similar claim has been championed for the builders of Bristol in the fourteenth century, as this principal maritime city imported Islamic — or possibly Moorish — hexagonal geometries in its major churches, rendered within the genius loci by observing established mouldings and decorative details. That the fifteenth-century growth of Anglo-Venetian trade may have resulted in a further example of imported architectural decoration is merely a theory, but one that I submit is quite feasible. Though most of the personalities and mechanics of Anglo-Venetian exchange are lost beyond recall, it is notable that in the early fifteenth century, a ‘John the Englishman’ kept an inn near the Doge’s Palace in Venice called The Dragon, which must represent a dependable turnover of English clientele in the city, any one of whom may have had the imagination to translate his observations10.

Seventeenth-century buildings: the example of Kew Palace

Fig. 7: Kew Palace, Surrey. Built c. 1631. State of the south elevation’s central gable in 1996.

Fig. 7: Kew Palace, Surrey. Built c. 1631. State of the south elevation’s central gable in 1996.

© Jonathan Foyle

22I would now like to move onto a building of the 1630s which provides a helpful contrast in practice and effect. What became Kew Palace (fig. 7) from 1728, was built for a mercantile family, that of Samuel Fortrey, his wife Catherine and children, who wanted a second home at Kew, eight miles west of London and there built an early manifestation of the fashion for villas along the banks of the River Thames. It bears the date 1631 above the south door, and was at that time constructed entirely of brick arranged in a classical sensibility, with strictly symmetrical façades articulated by the classical orders. It was an innovative structure, ostensibly the first house in England to be constructed of the since ubiquitous Flemish Bond: i.e. of staggered courses of bricks laid with their sides (stretchers) and ends (headers) exposed alternately. It also seems to be the earliest attempt to achieve flat arches composed of cut-and-rubbed voussoirs.

23In 1997, I conducted an extensive survey of the exterior of this building, carefully discerning the individual phases of construction and repair. In the process I came across some examples of red limewash, or ‘ruddle’ (fig. 8). The latest layer belonged to about 1880. The earliest was coeval with the initial construction in the 1630s, and was much the most interesting. Remarkably, these early traces were found behind rainwater pipe brackets, in grooves set in the centre of the courses of bright white mortar, which were in themselves another new technique. The impression achieved was the unification of the façades in one colour with the impression of tight joints in the brick masonry. This presents a monolithic form, a monumentality suited to the formal rigour of the classical tradition, whilst augmenting the constructional reality of the tight brickwork in the cut-and-rubbed window voussoirs. This monolithic effect, in which the projections and recessions of the building’s form are emphasised by the play of light and shadow, is in complete contrast to the aspiration for intricate, tessellated surfaces gained by the early Tudor three-colour pencilling. It is this approach that is found in the inscribed lines and simple colouring of plaster and stucco, which had begun to imitate blocks of masonry (however improbably) upon examples of embarrassingly old-fashioned timber houses.

Fig. 8: Kew Palace, Surrey. Trials of red ochre or ‘ruddle’ on a newly-built section of of brick gable, during conservation in 1997.

Fig. 8: Kew Palace, Surrey. Trials of red ochre or ‘ruddle’ on a newly-built section of of brick gable, during conservation in 1997.

© Jonathan Foyle

24The limewash samples from the façades of Kew were analysed by Crick Smith Conservation, and archaeological analysis identified four consecutively darker phases between 1631 and 1880, the last having been bound with casein. With the support of English Heritage, it was with some trepidation that the restoration of the first, terracotta, scheme was undertaken, though it was reinforced with casein. One, two then three coats were applied to a test panel that was hosed daily to simulate rainfall. One coat did not weather sufficiently; two coats was substantial enough whilst three proved too thick. White surface blooming of the solvent lime created a temporary problem that was solved by merely brushing. The results of the limewash were revealed in January 1998 (fig. 9). Within two years they had substantially darkened and developed a satisfying patina. It remains to be seen whether this experiment will lead to a broader fashion for reinstating colour, but each building has its own conditions which will inform that choice. In many cases, the realization and understanding that some of the buildings we have inherited are pale reflections of their former glory is reward enough.

Fig. 9: Kew Palace, Surrey. Effect of two coats of ruddle as completed on the exterior façades, Summer 1998.

Fig. 9: Kew Palace, Surrey. Effect of two coats of ruddle as completed on the exterior façades, Summer 1998.

© Jonathan Foyle

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Notes

1 For example, articles by Dr David Park and scholars of his department of paint conservation at the Courtauld Institute of Art, London; forensic examinations by Helen Hughes, Eddie Sinclair and Andrea Thomas, and the masterly study of interior colour schemes of the post-medieval centuries by Dr Ian Bristow: Architectural Colour in British Interiors 1615–1840, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1996.

2 The most conspicuous Scottish example of restored colour is the Great Hall of Stirling Castle (c. 1500), which was restored several years ago under the guidance of Historic Scotland and received a harling (rough-cast) in yellow ochre.

3 Nathaniel Lloyd’s landmark 1925 book A History of English Brickwork does not mention limewash on brick façades.

4 Winchester’s Anglo-Saxon New Minster has yielded figurative painting prior to 903, which appears to pre-empt the ‘bacon and egg’ ochre palette of eleventh-century churches such as Hardham, Sussex. Archaeological investigations of York Minster built c. 1080 revealed white limewash with red masonry lines. Raoul Glaber’s famous reference to Europe having been clad in a ‘mantle of white churches’ in trepidation and relief around the fateful year 1000 is one potential direct reference to external colour.

5 One example amongst many is the chapter house of St Frideswide’s priory (now Oxford Cathedral) of c. 1230 (much restored).

6 It has been a matter of debate whether this glaze was an accidental product of kiln firing or deliberately contrived via a medium such as salt crystals thrown into a hot kiln, or a dipped or brushed mineral glaze applied prior to firing. No signs of brushing have been identified on any samples, nor is any consistent angle of glaze found along the side of bricks to indicate dipping. The likeliest scenario is that the glaze is a potash derivative, that is, from the vaporized soot of wood fuelled kilns, for thick build-ups of green glassy potash glaze are usually found lining the walls of traditional wood kilns.

7 See Paul Hills, Venetian Colour, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999, p. 82‑83.

8 Deborah Howard, Venice & the East: The Impact of the Islamic World on Venetian Architecture, 1100–1500, New Haven, Yale University Press, 2000.

9 Oleg Grabar’s review of Deborah Howard’s book Venice & the East in The Art Bulletin, March 2003, summarises the consensus that ‘in short, and I may overstate the author’s point of view, it is memories of impressions that dominated the process by which Islamic elements came to Venice.’

10 See George B. Parks, The English Traveler to Italy, vol. 1: The Middle Ages (to 1525), Rome, Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1954, p. 377; 400‑01.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1: Wainfleet, Lincolnshire. St. Mary’s school. Patron: William Waynflete, c. 1470. View from north-west.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
Titre Fig. 2: Wainfleet, Lincolnshire. St. Mary’s school. Patron: William Waynflete, c. 1470. Detail of glazed diaper work on north wall.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 56k
Titre Fig. 3: Gatehouse, Farnham Castle, Surrey.
Crédits © English Heritage
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 168k
Titre Fig. 4: Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. Detail of pencilling scheme on east wall of the chapel, built for Cardinal Thomas Wosley and completed c. 1521.
Légende The unexplained arch to the bottom right was infilled in the early 1530s, and the wall covered with plaster until 1982.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 320k
Titre Fig. 5: San Zaccaria, Venice (Italy). Brick wall of glazed diaper work to the south of the church’s west façade.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Titre Fig. 6: Santi Giovanni e Paolo, Venice (Italy). Detail of painted brick masonry in red ochre and white lime.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Fig. 7: Kew Palace, Surrey. Built c. 1631. State of the south elevation’s central gable in 1996.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 68k
Titre Fig. 8: Kew Palace, Surrey. Trials of red ochre or ‘ruddle’ on a newly-built section of of brick gable, during conservation in 1997.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 112k
Titre Fig. 9: Kew Palace, Surrey. Effect of two coats of ruddle as completed on the exterior façades, Summer 1998.
Crédits © Jonathan Foyle
URL http://crcv.revues.org/docannexe/image/125/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 86k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence électronique

Jonathan Foyle, « Some examples of external colouration on English brick buildings, c. 1500–1650 », Bulletin du Centre de recherche du château de Versailles [En ligne],  | 2002, mis en ligne le 12 juin 2008, consulté le 18 août 2017. URL : http://crcv.revues.org/125 ; DOI : 10.4000/crcv.125

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Auteur

Jonathan Foyle

Chief executive of World Monuments Fund Britain, Dr Jonathan Foyle BA (Hons) MA Dipl Arch (RIBA Pt I & II) Ph.D is a specialist in historic architecture. He studied architecture in Canterbury, Art History at the Courtauld Institute and Archaeology at the University of Reading. He has developed his practical knowledge of major and minor historical monuments over more than a decade, including as a surveyor of Canterbury Cathedral, and as Buildings Curator at Hampton Court Palace and Kew Palace for almost eight years. He also teaches at Cambridge University and lectures widely. Email: jonathan@wmf.org.uk

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Droits d’auteur

© Jonathan Foyle / 2007 / CRCV

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